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Tag: Can agricultural research help solve the problems facing tropical agriculture

a natural farming system for sustainable agriculture in the tropics

a natural farming system for sustainable agriculture in the tropics插图

fA Natural Farming System for Sustainable Agriculture in the TropicsUsing EM or EM1 (Effective Micro-organisms).

What is sustainable agriculture/farming?

The following content is all about Sustainable Agriculture / Farming. Sustainable agriculture is also known as eco- farming (as the ecological balance is important) or organic farming (as organic matter is the main source of nutrient management) or sometimes as natural farming.

Can agricultural research help solve the problems facing tropical agriculture?

Ruben Echeverra, Director General of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture ( CIAT ), informs Food Tank that there is good reason to be hopeful about the problems facing tropical agriculture—and agricultural research has a large role to play. CIAT is based in Cali, Columbia, but they have projects in more than 50 countries.

What is CIAT doing to promote sustainable agriculture in the tropics?

While CIAT has long focused primarily on increasing the productivity and incomes of farmers throughout the tropics, they also have come to recognize the importance of sustainability. Indeed, the organization sees sustainability as vital for continued food production.

What is the future of Tropical Agriculture?

Though the future of tropical agriculture holds promise, Dr. Echeverra underscores the need for more support for small-scale farmers and more research funding in important areas.

How do bacteria help farmers?

Bacteria help the farmer by adding surplus nitrogen for the next crop. These microbes find the nitrogen in the air and soil, and then they capture [fix] it in small colonies on the roots of the peanut, soybean, pole beans, sitao, etc. The colonies can be seen on the root in small nodules. Permanent Links.

What is organic farming?

There are subtleties that can make them a little different, but the commitment is to safe, quality food production without chemical inputs. If we feed the soil organic matter, then the microbes will feed the plant.

How many microbes are in soil?

There are billions of microbes in a handful of soil. 90% of these microbes are neutral; they don’t affect the soil toward disease or health when left on their own. However, according to Dr. Higa, in abused or diseased-chemical based soils, 5 to 10% of the overall colony is pathogenic made up of disease causing organisms.

What is the current model of agriculture?

The Current Model for agriculture started out with the best of intentions. Produce more food for a growing population while shifting the work force to more valuable sectors like industry, manufacturing and high-tech jobs. Attempts were made to help the developing nations tool up to produce more food with less effort.

Why is shifting cultivation no longer sustainable?

The old system of slash and burn, shifting cultivation is no longer sustainable due to encroaching development and outside pressures. The tribal groups practicing this technique have little to show for their efforts.

When different crops are grown in rotation, what happens to the nutrients?

When different crops are grown in rotation, the nutrients, such as trace elements, will not be as quickly depleted.

Is food production becoming less reliable?

Throughout the world food production is becoming less and less reliable, more fragile, and increasingly toxic. Agriculture has been used to mortgage our future. With the modern banking system’s need for expansion, small farms have gone through waves of mergers and acquisitions only Wall Street would understand.

How does crop rotation affect disease?

Crop rotation also breaks the disease cycle when a different crop is planted. Many diseases are not able to find a new host plant when the rotation utilizes a different family each time. Do not follow rice with corn, as both are in the grass family and can have some of the same disease problems. We interrupt destructive insect cycles with crop rotation too. For example, up in the rainforest, the shifting cultivators will use a cleared area for only 2 years. The first planting of maize is spectacular, so they plant it again. As they deplete the nutrients they get lower yields. They also develop a large number of pests. The first crop will not have any stem borer damage. These pests will lay eggs that feed on the next batch of maize. By the third or fourth continual cropping, they have a plague of biblical proportions. When a different crop is planted each rotation, then the insect pests are not able to find a new host plant in that area. They may hatch in great numbers, but they dont survive in significant populations on the journey to the next host.

What are the organisms in EM?

EM contains some of the following organisms; photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Actinomycetes and fermenting fungi. In EM literature, the key idea is that the microbes form a consortium, a group that works as a team. They all work better with each other rather than alone. The photosynthetic bacteria are also known as phototrophs, Rhodopsudomonas sp., Rotobactor, PNSBs (Purple Non Sulfur Bacteria) and seem to guide the hundreds of other microbes in a beneficially productive state. There are now many manufacturers of EM like inoculants. Some of the best available have the proper balance of LAS, phototrophs, molds and fungi for the region they are prepared in. Most of these cultures are already available through commercial suppliers to the food industry, brewers and scientific community.

How many acres does EM1 cover?

One bottle covers a lot of area. Just 30 ml. of EM1 makes 1 liter of EM Extended which makes 33 backpack sprayers, which covers hectare or 1.25 Acres. A bottle of EM1, extended and diluted, will cover 15 hectares or 37 acres.

What is EM1 used for?

into plant food, root dividing hormones, amino acids, etc. EM1 also works as a probiotic in livestock. Dr. Higa found the phototrophs indispensable to the technology. These photosynthetic microbes synthesize sunlight when applied to leaves, thus enhancing the UV utilization. They convert the sun energy into plant food that will be taken in through the leaves pours (stomata). The microbes produce foliar feed, but they are not fertilizer. Most batches contain Rhodopsudomonas sp., Rotobactors, and like species of Purple Non Sulfur Bacteria (PNSB), because of their adaptability in different environments. They can actually work without UV in an oxygen free vessel or buried in soil or compost. Anaerobically, these adaptable little agents use heat energy instead of sunlight to convert organic matter into fertilizer or higher quality feed. They must be present in sufficient quantities. Molds, Actinomycetes, and fungi are found in a typical mix of EM1. They are important because they convert cellulose into outstanding soil components like humus, humic acids, mycelium, etc. That means the finished product is high-quality-crumbly-rich-friablecompost. Lactic acid bacteria make lactic acid. These surgeons of the microbial world biologically exclude pathogens by out eating the competition. You dont need to kill off the bad guys, just starve them out by radically outnumbering them with the beneficials. They all work together to stabilize the soil and produce great food while minimizing disease. They are part of an overall program that is helping tropical farmers succeed with lower risk. They help build up the soil if properly inoculated. Lets see how we do it here at Aloha House.#N#37

Why do you mulch tomatoes?

Mulching also prevents soil from splashing onto leaves thereby minimizing many disease problems from pathogenic bacteria in the soil. Tomatoes are especially prone to soil borne viruses from splashed soil. My favorite reason to mulch is weed suppression. If properly applied, 2-3 inches (10-15cm.) of mulch will keep seeds from poking through till your plants are well established. The time you spend mulching is paid back 3 fold in carefree / weed free productivity.

How many microbes are in soil?

here are billions of microbes in a handful of soil. 90% of these microbes are neutral; they dont affect the soil toward disease or health when left on their own. However, according

What is aerated compost tea?

Called ACT, aerated compost teas populate to high numbers while crowding out pathogens. The finished tea is sprayed throughout the farm or garden. She emphasizes high fungal counts for perennial plants, orchards and trees, while higher bacteria counts can be obtained from specialized compost teas for vegetables and annuals. They even test and review compost, soil, and tea as well as tea brewers. Ancient inoculation systems have been very useful for smallscale applications. Both Korean and Japanese farmers have been gathering soil from the forest floor and mixing it with rice bran. They utilize a process of fermentation for favorable composting and propagation of large numbers and varieties of This microorganisms. is anaerobic without

What is the best way to maintain soil productivity in organic farming?

To the maximum extent feasible, organic farming systems rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures to maintain soil productivity and tilth to supply plant nutrients. It looks forward to alternative methods of pest control like pest-resistant cultivars, bio-control agents, and cultural methods of pest control.

Why is it difficult to maintain organic carbon in tropical agriculture?

Maintenance of organic carbon is difficult in tropical agriculture due to high temperature coupled with conventional tillage where the organic carbon is easily oxidized.

How does manure improve soil?

They improve the soil chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil nutrients and promote favorable chemical reactions. They reduce the need for purchased inputs. Most of the organic manures are wastes or by-products, which on accumulation may lead to pollution.

How does organic fertilizer affect soil?

Organic fertilizers are considered complete plant food. Organic matter restores the pH of the soil , which may become acid due to the continuous application of chemical fertilizers. Read this: How Soil Acidity Effects the Crop Yield.

What are the different types of land types?

Based on both biological potential and biological diversity, land can be classified into conservation, restoration, and sustainable intensification areas. Conservation areas are rich in biological diversity and must be protected in their pristine purity.

How to optimize the use of locally available resources?

Seek to optimize the use of locally available resources by combining the different components of the farm system, i.e., plants, animals, soil, water, climate, and people, so that they complement each other and have the greatest possible synergetic effects.

Why is genetic diversity important?

Genetic diversity and location-specific varieties are essential for achieving sustainable advances in agriculture productivity. Genetic homogeneity characteristic of modern agricultural systems only leads to greater genetic vulnerability to biotic and abiotic stresses.