How does the intensive farming of pigs increase the efficiency of food production? Intensive farming can also meankeeping livestock in smaller pens with regulated temperatures. This reduces the energy they need for movement and temperature regulation and so maximises their size and yield.
What are the advantages of intensive farming?
This is because intensive farming aims to provide the highest harvest per area of land. Intensive agriculture uses a single crop or livestock species, allowing to increase the output efficiency. The demand for more food at a lower price is the primary factor driving the need to create intensive agriculture systems.
What is driving the rise of intensive agriculture?
Demand for cheaper food, in greater volumes, and with lower production costs are among the confluence of factors that have fuelled the rise of a system of intensive agriculture that dominates much of the world today.
Why is intensive agriculture bad for the environment?
Because intensive agriculture has shifted from focusing on maximizing the productivity of small pieces of land to application on farms spanning thousands of acres, it can often drive deforestation even before one considers the sources of animal feed.
Why is intensive farming important?
This is because intensive farming aims to provide the highest harvest per area of land. Intensive agriculture uses a single crop or livestock species, allowing to increase the output efficiency. The demand for more food at a lower price is …
How do insects survive pesticides?
The insects that survive begin to develop a resistance to the applied pesticide slowly. Then, the next generations start to get born with the same pesticide resistance. To deal with the increase of pests surviving each application, farmers begin to apply more often and higher amounts of pesticides in the future.
What is specialization in agriculture?
Specialized Production. Since the farmers will cultivate the same crop or livestock species, they can now use the same methods across their entire farmland. Specializing in such a specific area allows you to develop in-depth knowledge and direct experience on the livestock or specific crop type.
How does farming affect soil?
Destroys soil nutrients. The use of intensive farming has caused more damage to our soil than almost any other activity. According to the United Nation’s backed study from 2017, one-third of the planet’s soils are degraded due to inconsiderate methods used in the modern agriculture.
What is the primary factor driving the need to create intensive agriculture systems?
The demand for more food at a lower price is the primary factor driving the need to create intensive agriculture systems.
Why do farmers need to apply fertilizer?
Because of the reduced soil quality to maintain high yields, farmers need to apply fertilizers (usually synthetic) to keep up crop productivity.
What are the organisms that make up soil?
Soil organisms, like mites, earthworms, are essential to have a healthy soil structure and composition. In addition, the physical characteristics of the soil and a wide variety of plant types are needed to keep these organisms flourishing.
Why is metabolomics important?
Metabolomics is also a useful tool for understanding plant-microorganism interactions and for the identification of bioactive compounds involved in those interactions that could lead to innovative biocontrol products.
How does feed color affect tilapia?
Feed colour may affect tilapia performance, particularly in intensive farming systems. El-Sayed (2004) evaluated the effects of feed colour on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia fingerlings reared in indoor, recirculating system. The fish were fed four test diets with different colours, red, light green, dark blue and yellow, in addition to a commercial, light-brown diet. Fish fed dark-coloured diets (red and dark blue) had better performance than those fed light-coloured diets (green and yellow). The red diet produced the best growth rate while the yellow diet resulted in the poorest performance. El-Sayed et al. (2013) further elaborated the effects of feed colour on the performance of Nile tilapia fry (0.01 g) and fingerling (5.3 g). The fish were fed test diets with six different colours (dark blue, dark green, red, dark brown, yellow and light brown). The best growth rates, feed efficiency, survival and body protein were achieved in larvae fed on dark-coloured diets (dark blue and dark green), while light-coloured diets (yellow and light brown) produced lower performance. In case of fingerlings, fish performance, survival and body composition were not significantly affected by feed colours. These results suggest that Nile tilapia larvae are visual feeders, and they prefer dark-coloured diets to light-coloured diets, while fingerling fish showed no preference to diet colours.
What are the metabolomic tools?
Metabolomic tools are thus helpful for the development of biological control mainly to achieve the following different objectives: characterization of biomass; identification of active substances; characterization of complex mixture and characterization of biomarkers and mechanisms. This chapter deals with the subject of crop protection and biostimulation and the interest of manipulating metabolomic technologies in order to identify the plant’s ability to chemically interact with its environment and to identify levers to implement solutions of protection and optimization of growth. It takes up concepts on plant metabolomics, chemical ecology, abiotic and biotic stress, and phytochemicals resources.
How to combat enzootic diseases in aquaculture?
To combat these diseases and to ensure the sustainability of aquaculture great attention must be paid to sanitation and good husbandry (including nutrition). In some cases these are insufficient in themselves and the presence of certain enzootic diseases, or following their introduction, have made it impossible for certain species to be cultured, for example, the European flat oyster in France. The treatment of disease by chemotherapy, which was performed widely in the 1970s and 1980s, resulted in the induction of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and chemoresistant lice. Furthermore, the growing concern for the environment and the consumer about the increasing usage of chemicals and antibiotics in aquaculture, led to increasing control and restrictions on their usage. This stimulated much research in the 1980s and 1990s into development of more environmentally and consumer friendly methods of control such as vaccines and immunostimulants. These have achieved remarkable success and the pace of current research in this area using biotechnology to produce vaccines more cheaply, suggests that this approach will allow continued growth and sustainability of fin-fish mariculture into the future.
What is the cause of soil acidification?
Soil acidification in a managed agricultural production system is caused by the transformation of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S), which releases protons (H+) to soil solution. Soil acidification decreases soil pH, causing adverse effects on plants and soil microorganisms.
What are the factors that affect soil fertility?
Acidification, coupled with aluminum, manganese, and iron toxicities, and phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies, can lead to low soil fertility. Soil acidity influences soil C and N cycles by controlling activities of microorganisms involved in the transformations of these two elements.
How does soil erosion affect olive trees?
These practices ensure flat land, easy access of mechanical equipment, and facilitate olive fruit harvesting, but on the other side expose the soil to erosive effects of rainfall. Moreover, the organic matter of the soil is reduced, which may result in negative effects concerning its quality, thus leading to loss of productive capacity and reduced productivity. In traditional olive cultivations, soil erosion tends to be lower, as no mechanical equipment is used, and usually low-height vegetation can grow between the olive trees.
What is intensive farming?
Intensive farming is an agricultural system that aims to get maximum yield from the available land. This farming technique is also applied in supplying livestock. You could say that under this technique, food is produced in large quantities with the help of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are appropriately used to save such agricultural …
How does fertilizer affect the environment?
It affects the natural habitat of wild animals. Use of chemical fertilizers contaminates soil and water bodies, such as lakes and rivers.
What is the EPA’s role in farming?
The EPA (Environment Protection Agency) has set certain rules and regulations on how livestock, pesticides, and animal manure are to be maintained. The farmers, who follow these set rules help …
Why is it important to supervise and monitor the land?
It helps the farmer to easily supervise and monitor the land and protect his livestock from being hurt or hounded by dangerous wild animals.
What is hydroponics in gardening?
Hydroponics: In this method, plants are grown not in the soil but in water containing dissolved nutrients in greenhouses. This technique eradicates diseases caused by soil organisms but the plant needs constant support, supervision, and is grown in areas where there’s no soil.
What is biological control?
Biological Control: Using a predator intentionally to fix the pest population size is known as biological control. This technique demands utmost caution and thorough study, as it could go all wrong, if not managed properly. It is very difficult to pick a side in the debate regarding intensive farming.
Why is organic food important?
It also aids in solving the worldwide hunger problems to a great extent. This means that common people can now afford a balanced and nutritious diet. Many opine that organic food can be afforded only by the elite strata of the society.
What Is Intensive Agriculture?
Intensive agriculture is a method of farming that uses large amounts of labor and investment to increase the yield of the land. In an industrialized society this typically means the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that boost yield, and the acquisition and use of machinery to aid planting, chemical application, and picking.
What Are the Characteristics of Intensive Agriculture?
Pasture intensification is the increase in value and production that occurs due to inputs such as money, labor, and pesticides, specifically in the pastures on which farmed animals graze.
Intensive Agriculture Examples
Most of the farmed animals in the United States live a significant portion of their lives on industrial factory farms that use a variety of intensive methods to produce more meat, dairy, or eggs for less money. One such method is keeping the animals enclosed in small spaces and delivering their food to them.
Intensive Versus Extensive Agriculture
Intensive farming focuses on investing a lot of resources and labor into small tracts of land in order to increase yield. Extensive agriculture, on the other hand, employs larger tracts of land and lower quantities of labor and resources.
Why Is Intensive Agriculture Bad?
Billions of animals in the United States suffer on factory farms that employ intensive methods to increase profitability. Often they are confined in such small spaces that they can barely move. Standard procedures include debeaking, castration, tail docking, and dehorning.
The intensification of farming has played an important role in the history of agriculture. It allowed for farmers to feed growing communities around the world. However, intensive agriculture as we know it today is no longer sustainable or necessary.
What Is Intensive And Extensive Agriculture?
Intensive and extensive agriculture stands in opposition to one another in many ways. Extensive farming refers to systems that use relatively small amounts of inputs, such as human labor, machinery such as tractors, and investment. Fewer inputs are needed to produce yields, since extensive agriculture tends to make use of naturally-occurring resources, such as fertile soil. Pastoral production, where animals are grazed outdoors for their entire lives or are tended to by nomadic farmers – is a type of extensive agriculture, as are operations that favor greater plant and crop diversity.
What Are The Characteristics Of Intensive Farming?
Intensive farming is characterized by higher yields wrested from plants, animals, and the earth, motivated by a desire for more product for less money. Money is the objective, and much of it goes funneling into the hands of a very few. Achieving these unnatural results requires high degrees of human manipulation. Huge amounts of agrochemicals, including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, are applied generously to cropland. Intensive farming also requires high degrees of mechanization, from temperature controls in factory barns, to enormous harvesting tractors – these machines replace what was once done by human labor. Waste lagoons on animal farms and high levels of irrigation in intensive crop cultivation are other characteristics of intensive farming.
Why is biofortification important?
Due to depleted soils caused by intensive agriculture, produce, grains and other crops can wind up with less robust nutrient profiles than their counterparts raised organically or using extensive farming practices. Biofortification – whereby nutrients are added back into food before it is consumed by humans – is seen as a solution by some, however, others view it as being more of a bandaid approach, unsustainable in its own right.
What animals are targeted for intensive operations?
Species such as cows, pigs, chickens, and sheep are the usual targets for intensive operations, where they are bred, born, and forced to live drastically shortened lifespans in crowded, highly constrained, and often filthy environments, with many species kept indoors their entire lives.
How can intensive agriculture be sustainable?
However, one of the most effective and immediate steps that can be taken towards sustainability is for people to curtail the consumption of animal products since these are the most polluting, resource-intensive, and cruelest forms of agriculture. Particularly those in wealthy nations like the United States and New Zealand – two of the highest per-capita consumers of meat – ought to decrease animal product consumption, since consuming animal products can produce negative health outcomes like cardiovascular disease.
What is intensive livestock farming?
The term livestock refers to those individual animals who have no choice but to endure life on farms. Intensive livestock farming takes place within Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, also known as factory farms, and unfortunately, these are places of great tragedy. Species such as cows, pigs, chickens, and sheep are the usual targets for intensive operations, where they are bred, born, and forced to live drastically shortened lifespans in crowded, highly constrained, and often filthy environments, with many species kept indoors their entire lives. Antibiotics are generally administered to animals throughout their lives in order to stave off diseases to which their chronically-suppressed immune systems would otherwise succumb.
How long do pigs live in the wild?
In the wild, pigs can live upwards of 20 years. Intensive agriculture aims to grow animals as fast as possible in as short a time as possible since it is costly to provide feed.
What are the drawbacks of pesticides?
Pesticides Although the use of pesticides has its benefits, such as controlling or killing potential disease-causing organisms and insects, weeds and other pests, reducing yield losses and time savings to the producer and lowering food and fiber costs for the consumer, there are many drawbacks, such as the gradual erosion of soil, threat of toxicity to humans and other animals, increased pest resistance and the unintended killing of pests’ natural enemies. Astonishingly, over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water, bottom sediments, and food. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic chemicals are pesticides. As insects and weeds develop a resistance to pesticides, farmers are forced to use more, increasingly toxic chemicals to control these ‘superweeds’ and ‘superbugs’. Known as the "pesticide trap," farmers get caught on the treadmill as they are forced to spend more on pesticides each year just to keep crop loss from pests at a standard rate.
How does soil erosion affect biodiversity?
Soil erosion also reduces the ability of soil to store water and support plant growth, thereby reducing its ability to support biodiversity. Erosion promotes critical losses of water, nutrients, soil organic matter and soil biota, harming forests, rangeland and natural ecosystems.
What is intensive farming?
soil pollution. Intensive farming is an agricultural intensification and mechanization system that aims to maximize yields from available land through various means, such as heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. This intensification and mechanization has also been applied to the raising of livestock with billions of animals, …
How can organic farming help the world?
A comprehensive examination of nearly 300 studies worldwide shows that organic, small-scale farming can feed the world. Organic farms in developing countries outperformed conventional practices by 57% and that organic agriculture could produce enough food, on a per capita basis, to provide 2,640 to 4,380 calories per person per day, which is more than the suggested intake for healthy adults. According to the study, "With the average yield ratios, we modeled the global food supply that could be grown organically on the current agricultural land base. Model estimates indicate that organic methods could produce enough food on a global per capita basis to sustain the current human population, and potentially an even larger population, without increasing the agricultural land base and while reducing the detrimental environmental impacts of conventional agriculture." Furthermore, a United Nations Human Rights report states that "Eco-Farming can double food production in 10 years."
What is factory farming?
Factory farms, also known as CAFO’s (Concentrated Animal Feed Operations), are not what you typically see advertised on their products, with images of happy animals free-roaming farmlands beneath the bright sun in endless, lush green fields. It’s far from it. Factory farms cram animals, such as cows, hogs and chickens, by the thousands into tightly packed, filthy, windowless sheds where they are confined to gestation crates, wire cages, barren dirt lots or other cruel confinement systems. As PETA explains, "These animals will never raise their families, root around in the soil, build nests, or do anything that is natural and important to them. Most won’t even feel the sun on their backs or breathe fresh air until the day they are loaded onto trucks bound for slaughter." Designed to produce the highest possible output at the lowest possible cost to the operator, factory farms operate without regard for public health, the environment, food safety, rural economies, animal health, or their surrounding communities.
How many calories does organic farming provide?
Organic farms in developing countries outperformed conventional practices by 57% and that organic agriculture could produce enough food, on a per capita basis, to provide 2,640 to 4,380 calories per person per day , which is more than the suggested intake for healthy adults.
What animals are crammed into factory farms?
Factory farms cram animals, such as cows, hogs and chickens, by the thousands into tightly packed, filthy, windowless sheds where they are confined to gestation crates, wire cages, barren dirt lots or other cruel confinement systems.