[tp widget="default/tpw_default.php"]
 

Tag: What is dry farming and how was it done

how did dry farming impact the west

how did dry farming impact the west插图

How did dry farming impact the West? By the end of the century dry farming was championed as the solution to the agricultural problems of the Great PlainsGreat PlainsThe Great Plains is a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, located in North America. It lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.en.wikipedia.org. Dry farming’s purpose was toconserve limited moisture during dry weather by reducing or even eliminating runoff and evaporation, thereby increasing soil absorption and retention of moisture.

How did dry farming affect the Dust Bowl?

The widespread practice of dry farming had a catastrophic effect in the 1930s: the Dust Bowl. By the end of the nineteenth century Great Plains farmers, aided by steel plows, uprooted most of the native prairie grass, which held moisture in the soil. Strong winds and extended droughts had not disturbed the land when the grasses covered it.

What is dry farming and how was it done?

Many engaged in dry farming—agriculture without irrigation. The practice required the use of drought-resistant crops and careful management of the soil to conserve moisture. Demonstration crops of Red Cross and Turkey Red wheat surround a woman and her child, about 1908.

What are the characteristics of a dry farm?

Dry farming. Crops adapted to dry farming may be either drought resistant or drought evasive. Drought-resistant crops, such as sorghum, are able to reduce transpiration (emission of moisture) and may nearly cease growing during periods of moisture shortage, resuming growth when conditions again become favourable.

Who were the first successful dry farmers in Wyoming?

Some writers claim that the first successful dry farmers in Wyoming were Swedish settlers in Salem, near Pine Bluffs in eastern Laramie County, in the late 1880s. By the early 1890s, dry farming was widespread throughout the state, with experiment stations managed by the university and the federal government.

How did the Great Plains affect the 1930s?

The widespread practice of dry farming had a catastrophic effect in the 1930s: the Dust Bowl. By the end of the nineteenth century Great Plains farmers, aided by steel plows, uprooted most of the native prairie grass, which held moisture in the soil. Strong winds and extended droughts had not disturbed the land when the grasses covered it. Because the demand for wheat increased after World War I (1914 – 1918), Great Plains farmers responded by planting more than twenty-seven million new acres of wheat. By 1930 there were almost three times as many acres in wheat production as there were ten years earlier. In 1934 drought, high winds, and the stripped land combined to create the Dust Bowl in the Plains. The situation prevailed into 1937, at a dear cost to crops and livestock. This combined with the effects of the Great Depression (1929 – 1939) to cause great hardships. Though many homesteaders abandoned their lands, other stayed and eventually replanted the Great Plains. The region was spared a recurrence of the Dust Bowl due to conservation efforts, which staved off over-planting and restored some prairie lands to their natural states.

How did dry farming evolve?

In the United States, dry-farming techniques evolved through experiments conducted more or less independently where settlements were established in locations with little precipitation. During the early part of the 1850s, for example, Americans in California began to raise crops such as winter wheat, whose principal growing season coincided with the winter rainfall season. By 1863, settlers in Utah extensively and successfully practiced dry farming techniques. In some interior valleys of the Pacific Northwest, dry farming was reported before 1880. In the Great Plains, with its summer rainfall season, adaptation to dry farming methods accompanied the small-farmer invasion of the late 1880s and later. Experimental work for the Kansas Pacific Railroad had begun near the ninety-eighth meridian by R. S. Elliott between 1870 and 1873.

What is dry farming?

Dry farming was an agricultural method that allowed crops to be cultivated on the prairie, which typically received low levels of rainfall and endured very hot summers and harsh winters. Growers who practiced dry farming cultivated some fields while allowing others to lie fallow, so that a field only supported crops every other year. In the off-year, the soil stored up enough moisture and nutrients for the following growing season. Another method of dry farming called for the soil to be tilled, rather than plowed, to a depth of only three or four inches (eight to ten centimeters).

Is the net income per hour of labor in dry farming high?

The net income result per hour of labor in dry farming is high, but so are the fixed costs (because of special implements required). In addition, the risk of failure is higher than in traditional farming.

Who developed dry land agriculture?

Campbell carried on private experiments that attracted the attention and support of railroad interests, resulting in the formulation of much of his system of dry farming by 1895. The state agricultural experiment stations of the Great Plains inaugurated experimental activities under government auspices soon after their foundation, and the federal Department of Agriculture created the Office of Dry Land Agriculture in 1905. Once inaugurated, development of dry farming was continuous in the Great Plains proper, but the drought cycles of the 1930s intensified experimental work and the invention of machinery for special soil-culture processes both in the Plains and in the transitional subhumid country where it was neglected during wet periods.

Does Encyclopedia have page numbers?

Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.

How does dry farming work?

Dry farmingdepends upon efficient storage of the limited moisture in the soil and the selection of crops and growing methods that make the best use of this moisture. Tilling the land shortly after harvest and keeping it free from weeds are typical methods, but in certain latitudes stubble is left in the fields after harvest to trap snow. Moisture control during cropgrowing consists largely of destruction of weeds and prevention of runoff. The ideal soil surface is free of weeds but has enough clods or dead vegetable matter to hinder runoff and prevent erosion.

What is moisture control in agriculture?

Moisture control during crop growing consists largely of destruction of weeds and prevention of runoff. The ideal soil surface is free of weeds but has enough clods or dead vegetable matter to hinder runoff and prevent erosion. Crops adapted to dry farming may be either drought resistant or drought evasive.

What is a crop that is adapted to dry farming?

Crops adapted to dry farming may be either drought resistant or drought evasive. Drought-resistant crops, such as sorghum, are able to reduce transpiration (emission of moisture) and may nearly cease growing during periods of moisture shortage, resuming growth when conditions again become favourable. Drought-evasive crops achieve their main growth during times of year when heat and drought conditions are not severe. Crops adapted to dry farming are usually smaller and quicker to mature than those grown under more humid conditions and are usually allotted more space.

What is an encyclopedia editor?

Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.

What were the dry farming opportunities advertised by?

Lastly, to educate farmers and to encourage immigrants, dry farming opportunities were advertised by land companies, railroads and a state dry farming association, as well as by local governments and businessmen.

What did the man with the hoe do?

Many engaged in dry farming—agriculture without irrigation. The practice required the use of drought-resistant crops and careful management of the soil to conserve moisture.

What was the purpose of the demonstration crops in Wyoming?

Promoted by agricultural experts and organizations, the idea was endorsed by Wyoming officials to stimulate agricultural development and encourage immigration. And by the first decade of the 20th century, the state was actively backing the practice with a state dry farming director and several state-supported experimental farms.

When did dry farming start in Wyoming?

By the early 1890s, dry farming was widespread throughout the state, with experiment stations managed by the university and the federal government.

What was the response to Mondell’s statement?

A great round of applause and cheers followed Mondell’s statement. One representative asked for opposing views. Another claimed , “There is no other side,” which quickly elicited a great outpouring of laughter.

Who was the Wyoming dry farming director?

Wyoming State Dry Farming Director Vernon T. Cooke, left, and Gov. B.B. Brooks, second from left, in a field near Cheyenne at harvest time, 1909. Wyoming State Archives.

Who was the first dry farming director in Wyoming?

In 1907, Gov. B. B. Brooks appointed Cooke as the first state dry farming director. Although he was accountable to the Wyoming Department of Immigration and later the state Board of Farm Commissioners, he was given a free hand in exercising his duties.

Why did the railroads kill buffalo?

They also destroyed sections of tracks as they crossed them. The railroad companies hired hunters to keep the railways clear of buffalo. Some of the railroads that ran through the Great Plains offered hunting specials, allowing their passengers to shoot buffalo from inside the railroad cars. Since buffalo are slow to move away from trouble, the passengers shooting buffalo for sport from their trains managed to kill thousands. The sport became so popular that it increased railroad business, until the stench of rotting carcasses that lined the railroad tracks began to make passengers ill and the railroad companies were forced to stop the practice.

What city was handling grain in 1850?

By 1850 Chicago was handling as much grain as Saint Louis, the major river port at the foot of the St. Louis River that had long been a shipping center. By 1854 more grain was moving along the Great Lakes than through the major port city of New Orleans.

How many bushels of grain were transported in the 1860s?

By the early 1860s, grain flowed through the rising cities of the Midwest in railroad cars carrying 325 bushels each. The bushels were sorted and loaded onto steam-powered conveyor belts and borne up into grain elevators, huge storage bins built next to railroad tracks in which the grain was loaded into numbered bins.

What is an organization of workers formed to protect and further their mutual interests?

An organization of workers formed to protect and further their mutual interests by bargaining as a group with their employers over wages, working conditions, and benefits.

Why are farmers not making money?

Unfortunately, though farmers began to produce more crops for the market, most were not making more money because of lowering crop prices and high costs of services. Many farmers began to feel they had no control over the process.

How did new technology help farmers?

New methods of transportation allowed more products to be grown, and new technology for farming and processing foods made it possible for farmers to grow more food. Unfortunately, it would be decades before the country’s economic and political systems would adapt to the new capacity of its farms.

What was the lack of transportation in the Appalachian Mountains?

Before the 1850s, the lack of transportation in all areas west of the Appalachian Mountains made it nearly impossible for farmers and ranchers to sell large quantities of their products. This is illustrated in an 1852 U.S. Senate report showing that a farmer using wagons on existing dirt roads to ship his crop to a market 330 miles away was likely to spend the entire value of his crop on the cost of transporting it. Transporting by railroad reduced the cost by an estimated 90 percent.

Who owns the West?

When Thomas Jefferson imagined the ideal environment for the republic to thrive, he pictured a country made up of small farms. Independent farmers would make an honest living tilling the soil, and in doing so, they would become virtuous citizens.

Why did railroad monopolies charge so high shipping rates?

Railroad monopolies charged shipping rates so high that in some cases it was cheaper for farmers to burn their crops for fuel than to ship them to market. Farm machinery and fertilizer were also subject to steep markups. All of these factors combined to drive farmers into debt and bankruptcy.

What was the order of patrons of husbandry called?

Frustration with their circumstances led farmers to band together in cooperative organizations. The Order of Patrons of Husbandry, commonly called the Grange , formed in 1867. The Grange called for increased railroad regulations and cooperative buying and selling of equipment and produce.

How did the railroads change time?

The railroads opened up the West not only to settlement but to the world market, making it possible to ship meat and crops to distant cities and even across oceans. To do so, the railroads even transformed time itself: in 1883 the railroad companies coordinated their schedules by dividing the United States into four time zones, which are still the standard today.

How did new agricultural machinery help farmers?

New agricultural machinery allowed farmers to increase crop yields with less labor, but falling prices and rising expenses left them in debt.

What is the town of Virginia City?

Artist’s depiction of the town of Virginia City. Artist’s depiction of Virginia City, a mining boomtown that sprang up in Nevada after the discovery of the Comstock Lode. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons. But the greatest contributor to the development of the West was the railroad.

What was the Westward expansion?

Westward expansion: economic development. In the late nineteenth century, the West developed into a modern agricultural machine–at the expense of farmers.