What are the components of farming?
The farming system takes into account the components of soil, water, crops, livestock, labour, capital, energy and other resources, with the farm family at the centre managing agriculture and related activities.
What is a farming system?
“ Farming System is defined as a complex inter related matrix of soil, plants, animals, implements, power, labour capital and other inputs controlled in part by farming families and influenced to varying degrees by political, economic, institutional and social forces that operate at many levels.
What is modern farming?
Modern farming offers diverse and varied activities in and with nature. The farmers’ main task is to produce safe and high-quality food. In addition, they contribute to vital rural areas with a broad range of services.
What is the importance of farm planning?
FARM PLANNING: Farm planning is to help the farmers to move to a higher level of production and income, starting from where he/she is now with the resource available to him/her.
What is ethanol used for?
an ingredient in bio-based synthetics, adhesives and in. ethanol that can be utilised as a replacement for petrol. Sugar from sugar beets is used by the chemical industry to. make antibiotics and vitamins. Fibre plants, such as flax. and hemp, are used to make insulating materials, natural.
What does the first number mean in a husban?
The first number stands for the type of husban-. dry (0 means organic production, 1 means free-range. production, 2 means floor housing, 3 means cage rearing), . the following letters stand for the EU country and the num-. ber that follows the letters stands for the respective farm.
What is cascade use?
So-. called cascade use is becoming increasingly important. This is a method of making multiple use of biomass. Timber, for example, is used firstly as a building material. If it is no longer required to fulfil this function, the . material can then be used to generate electricity and heat.
How long do piglets suckle?
The sow suckles her piglets for . three to four weeks; she then returns to the service area. Rearing (until the twelfth week) From an age of three to four weeks, the piglets are reared. in groups in a special piglet house, a so-called flatdeck (C). At the end of this rearing phase, the pigs are moved to a.
What are the most renewable resources?
timber as well. Biogas plants, biofuel plants and wood-. fired power plants turn these into heat, electricity and . fuels. Biomass is currently the most important renewable .
Can GM food be marketed in the EU?
Genetically modified (GM) food . and feed may only be marketed in the EU if it has been subjected . to an in-depth safety assessment. GM organisms and products not . authorised in the EU must not be present in food or, in general, . feed (zero tolerance). They are also subject to certain traceability .
Do tractors drive on fields?
tractors drive on our fields, sensors on the machines can
What are the different weeding frequencies?
Different weeding frequencies (WFs)―0WF, 2WF, 4WF, 6WF, and 8WF― were adopted in an organic rice field to investigate their influence on weed types, rice and weed biomass, rice tiller and weed number, N concentration, and N uptake. The study field was located in Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan. Rice (cv. Sasanishiki) was planted from May to September 2019, and all weeding events were carried out until 49 days after transplantation (DAT) using a rotary weeder. Rice and weed samples were collected at 60, 88, and 110 DAT. Echinochloa crus-galli (E. crus-galli), Schoenoplectus juncoides, and Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) were the most commonly found weeds. High weed diversity was observed at both 6WF and 8WF, E. crus-galli was the dominant weed at 0WF. Compared to 0WF, 2WF displayed a significantly decreased weed biomass. However, at 8WF, the weed biomass was reduced by 79.0%, the rice biomass was increased by 277%, and the rice tiller number was almost three times higher than that at 0WF and 110 DAT. Compared to 0WF, a significantly increased rice N uptake was observed at 4WF, and rice N uptakes achieved at 6WF and 8WF were two and four times higher than those at 0WF, respectively. Higher weeding frequencies provide notable benefits in suppressing weeds and supporting rice growth, especially in N uptake competition with weeds.
What is REPRO software?
The paper describes the model software REPRO (REPROduction of soil fertility) designed for analyzing interlinked carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes in the system soil–plant–animal–environment. The model couples the balancing of C, N and energy fluxes with the target to estimate the climate-relevant CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O sources and sinks of farming systems. For the determination of the net greenhouse effect, calculations of C sequestration in the soil, CO 2 emissions from the use of fossil energy, CH 4 emissions from livestock keeping and N 2 O emissions from the soil have been made. The results were converted into CO 2 equivalents using its specific global warming potential (GWP). The model has been applied in the experimental farm Scheyern in southern Germany, which had been divided into an organic (org) and a conventional (con) farming system in 1992. Rather detailed series of long-term measuring data are available for the farm in Scheyern, which have been used for validating the software for its efficiency and applicability under very different management yet nearly equal site conditions. The organic farm is multi-structured with a legume-based crop rotation (N 2 fixation: 83 kg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ). The livestock density (LSU=Livestock Unit according to FAO) is 1.4 LSU ha ?¹ . The farm is oriented on closed mass cycles; from the energetic point of view it represents a low-input system (energy input 4.5 GJ ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ). The conventional farm is a simple-structured cash crop system, based on mineral N (N input 145 kg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ). Regarding the energy consumption, the system is run on high inputs (energy input 14.0 GJ ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ). The organic crop rotation reaches about 57% (8.3 Mg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ) of the DM yield, about 66% (163 kg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ) of the N removal and roughly 56% (3741 kg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ) of the C fixation of the conventional crop rotation. In the organic rotation, 18 GJ per GJ of fossil energy input are bound in the harvested biomass vis-à-vis 11.1 GJ in the conventional rotation. The strongest influence on the greenhouse effect is exerted by C sequestration and N 2 O emissions. In Scheyern, C sequestration has set in under organic management (+0.37 Mg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ), while humus depletion has been recorded in the conventional system (?0.25 Mg ha ?¹ yr ?¹ ). Greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs) due to fuel consumption and the use of machines are nearly on the same level in both crop rotations. However, the conventional system emits an additional 637 kg CO 2 eq ha ?¹ yr ?¹ , which had been consumed in the manufacture of mineral N and pesticides in the upstream industry. Besides the analyses in the experimental farm Scheyern, the model has been applied in 28 commercial farms (18 org and 10 con) with comparable soil and climate conditions in the surroundings of Scheyern (mean distance 60 km). The program calculations are aimed at benchmarking the results obtained in the farming systems Scheyern; they are expected to disclose management-specific variations in the emission of climate-relevant gases and to rate the suitability of the model for describing such management-specific effects. In order to make the situation in the farms comparable, only the emissions from cropping systems were analyzed. Livestock keeping remained unconsidered. Due to lower N and energy inputs, clearly lower N 2 O and CO 2 emissions were obtained for the organic farms than for the conventional systems. The analyses have shown possibilities for the optimization of management and the mitigation of GGE. Our findings underline that organic farming includes a high potential for C sequestration and the reduction of GGEs. Currently, the model REPRO is tested by 90 farms in the Federal Republic of Germany with the aim to apply it in the future not only in the field of research but also in the management of commercial farms.
What are the factors that affect tomato yield?
The importance of nitrogen (N), weeds, and water as yield-limiting factors was evaluated over a 4-year period in tomato cropping systems under conventional, low-input, and organic management. The cropping systems studied were part of the Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems (SAFS) Project at the University of California, Davis, a comparison of conventional and alternative farming systems in California’s Sacramento Valley. Water applied, soil N levels, plant N uptake, weed abundance, and tomato yield were measured and compared among treatments. Tomato yields ranged from just under 55 to over 90 t ha?1 and significant treatment differences were observed in 2 of the 4 years. Multivariate analyses, used to sort out the effects of N, weeds, and water, indicated all three factors influenced yields in this study but their relative importance was dependent upon the management system. Results indicated that N availability was most important in limiting yields in the organic system and water availability was more important under conventional management. Although weed abundance was relatively high in the organic system in 2 years of the study, weed competition for N was not evident. Instead, relative N input levels and N immobilization by soil microflora appeared to explain N uptake and tomato yield variation. The findings indicate that organic and low-input tomato systems in this region can produce yields similar to those of conventional systems but that the factors limiting yield may be more difficult to manage.
How many hectares of land are under organic farming?
According to the survey, currently almost 31 million hectares of farmland are under organic management worldwide. The study presents the latest organic farming statistics including land use data, continent reports and reports about general developments in organic farming.
How does nitrogen cycling affect soil fertility?
In agricultural systems, optimization of carbon and nitrogen cycling through soil organic matter can improve soil fertility and yields while reducing negative environmental impact. A basic tenet that has guided the management of soil organic matter for decades has been that equilibrium levels of carbon and nitrogen are controlled by their net input and that qualitative differences in these inputs are relatively unimportant. This contrasts with natural ecosystems in which there are significant effects of species composition and litter quality on carbon and nitrogen cycling,. Here we report the net balances of carbon and nitrogen from a 15-year study in which three distinct maize/soybean agroecosystems are compared. Quantitative differences in net primary productivity and nitrogen balance across agroecosystems do not account for the observed changes in soil carbon and nitrogen. We suggest that the use of low carbon-to-nitrogen organic residues to maintain soil fertility, combined with greater temporal diversity in cropping sequences, significantly increases the retention of soil carbon and nitrogen, which has important implications for regional and global carbon and nitrogen budgets, sustained production, and environmental quality.
What countries are 1.39%?
Uganda (1.39%), Belize (1.3%) a n d Bolivia (1%). Thus t h ey are all well abov e the share of
How many hectares are there in Argentina?
three million hectares in Argentina. Owing to this high share of pastureland, less than half of the
How is farming system related to livelihoods?
Farming systems approach relates to the whole farm rather than individual elements; it is driven as much by the overall welfare of farming households as by goals of yield and profitability. Farming systems are closely linked to livelihoods because agriculture remains the single most important component of most rural people’s living and also plays an important role in the lives of many people in semi-urban areas.
What is the farming system?
Farming system is an integrated set of activities that farmers perform in their farms under their resources and circumstances to maximize the productivity and net farm income on a sustainable basis. The farming system takes into account the components of soil, water, crops, livestock, labour, capital, energy and other resources, with the farm family at the centre managing agriculture and related activities.
Why is vertical expansion important in agriculture?
The farming system approach, therefore, assumes great importance for sound management of farm resources to enhance farm productivity, reduce the degradation of environmental quality and improve the quality of life of farmers and above all to maintain sustainability in farm production and productivity.
What is IFOAM in agriculture?
The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) hasproduced a set of international organic standards, laid down by people frommany countries. These give guidelines about what organic farming is and how itshould be practised on the farm.
What is green manure?
Green manures, often known as cover crops, are plants which are grown toimprove the structure, organic matter content and nutrient content of the soil.They are a cheap alternative to artificial fertilisers and can be used to complementanimal manures.
What is mulching in agriculture?
Mulching means covering the ground with a layer of loose material such ascompost, manure, straw, dry grass, leaves or crop residues. Green vegetationis not normally used as it can take a long time to decompose and can attractpests and fungal diseases.
What is compost made of?
Compost is organic matter (plant and animal residues) which has been rotteddown by the action of bacteria and other organisms, over a period of time.Materials such as leaves, fruit skins and animal manures can be used to makecompost. Compost is cheap, easy to make and is a very effective material thatcan be added to the soil, to improve soil and crop quality.
Is natural pest control cheaper than chemical pesticides?
Using natural pest and disease control is often cheaper than applying chemicalpesticides because natural methods do not involve buying materials from theoutside. Products and materials which are already in the home and around thefarm are most often used.
How to prevent shoot borer attack?
To prevent attack by early shoot borer, apply Sulphur on the setts and cover with soil. If 25-30% of the shoots are affected, then for every 100 metre length of furrow, mix Sulphur and apply using a hand sprayer on the tips and bottom of the shoots. Sugarcane. 60.
What are some ways to prevent tree decline?
Either only a few trees or entire orchard may be affected. Good cultural practices, improvement in soil fertility and drainage, control of insect pests, nema todes, etc. may be useful to minimize the incidence of decline. Use of resistant rootstocks and certified budwood for propagation is also useful.
What is the term for the spread of a pathogen from an inoculum source to a host?
Dissemination refers to the spread or dispersal of the pathogen from an inoculum source to a host. Dissemination can occur by wind, splashing rain, insects, infested pruning tools, infected or infested transplants, and other means. Spread can occur over short distances within the tree canopy or from distant sources.
What is sucking pest?
Sucking type of pest like aphids, leafhoppers thrips suck the sap from plants. This kind of sucking pests can be con- trolled by systemic poison like Imidacloprid (To be used with caution), flubendamide, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, etc. . 1) Fumigant: Forms vapour and acts on breath- ing system of the insects.
What can farmers use to decompose organic matter?
Farmers can use blood meal, bone meal, poultry manure, cottonseed meal and soybean meal and other nitrogen rich ma- terial as organic matter, which enhance the decom- position. Electrical Conductivity (EC):EC is normally consid- ered to be a measurement of the dissolved salts in a solution.
What causes soil particles to move?
Wind erosion: Movement of soil particles is caused by wind force exerted against or parallel to surface of the ground.
What is the term for the removal of soil from the land surface by water in motion?
Erosion by water: Known as water erosion, is the removal of soil from the lands surface by water in motion.
What are the nutrients in poultry?
A variable but moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen) of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids (mainly found in the skin and easily removed), B- group vitamins (mainly thiamin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), and minerals (like iron, zinc, and copper) make poultry 6.
Why is poultry important?
What is the importance of poultry? Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers. Many people love to raise and show chickens and other poultry species at fairs and other poultry shows. Others just love to raise them for backyard pets and for fresh eggs every day.
What are the housing systems for poultry farming?
Housing systems such as range, straw yard, battery cage and deep litter should also be considered. Poultry farming equipment and feeding The construction of poultry houses, provision of feeders, drinkers, an adequate waste disposal system, source of water.
What is poultry farming?
AN INTRODUCTION TO POULTRY FARMING According to agriculture diary, poultry refers to a wide range of birds of various species and it applies to them generally alive or dressed that is killed and prepared for sales. It involves chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pigeons, peacock, peafowl, ostriches, quails and even other game birds.
What are the characteristics of a poultry?
Behavioural characteristics Poultry are social, inquisitive animals with a strong territorial instinct. They put themselves to bed in the same spot every night and enjoy being with other birds. They should never be kept alone and form a clear pecking order or hierarchy within their group. 5.
Is poultry droppings good for fertilizer?
Poultry droppings that is wastes are nitrogenous and considered good for fertilizers 4. Feathers in poultry are used for making pillows, fancy articles and curios. 5. It offers good full time or part time employment opportunity to farmers.
Is poultry droppings nitrogenous?
It is a continuous source of income, it is not seasonal and can produce income for the entire year 3. Poultry droppings that is wastes are nitrogenous and considered good for fertilizers 4.