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Tag: what is intensive crop farming

what is intensive crop farming

what is intensive crop farming插图

Intensive farming is anagricultural intensification and mechanization systemthat aims to maximize yields from available land through various means, such as heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of intensive farming?

One of the fundamental advantages of intensive farming is that the farm yield is extremely high.With the help of intensive farming,supervision of the land becomes easier.The farm produce such as fruits and vegetables are less expensive when intensive farming techniques are employed. …More items…

Does intensive farming need lots of Labour?

Intensive farming requires greater inputs than extensive farming. Intensive farms tend to use more labor, agrochemicals, and special seeds or breeds of animals. Extensive farming largely relies on the natural fertility of the land and the natural behaviors of the animals.

What are the features of intensive farming?

Types Of Intensive FarmingLivestock. The term livestock refers to those individual animals who have no choice but to endure life on farms.Crops. Monocropping is a defining feature of intensive plant agriculture. …Aquaculture. …Sustainability. …

What are some examples of intensive agriculture?

Examples of intensive agriculture. Massive monocultures . Like wheat, corn and barley crops in the North American plains, or soy in Argentina, it is a highly profitable monoculture for both domestic consumption and export, and despite being highly mechanized, they cause environmental damage and they impoverish the species by always preferring …

What Is Intensive Agriculture?

Intensive agriculture is a method of farming that uses large amounts of labor and investment to increase the yield of the land. In an industrialized society this typically means the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that boost yield, and the acquisition and use of machinery to aid planting, chemical application, and picking.

What Are the Characteristics of Intensive Agriculture?

Pasture intensification is the increase in value and production that occurs due to inputs such as money, labor, and pesticides, specifically in the pastures on which farmed animals graze.

Intensive Agriculture Examples

Most of the farmed animals in the United States live a significant portion of their lives on industrial factory farms that use a variety of intensive methods to produce more meat, dairy, or eggs for less money. One such method is keeping the animals enclosed in small spaces and delivering their food to them.

Intensive Versus Extensive Agriculture

Intensive farming focuses on investing a lot of resources and labor into small tracts of land in order to increase yield. Extensive agriculture, on the other hand, employs larger tracts of land and lower quantities of labor and resources.

Why Is Intensive Agriculture Bad?

Billions of animals in the United States suffer on factory farms that employ intensive methods to increase profitability. Often they are confined in such small spaces that they can barely move. Standard procedures include debeaking, castration, tail docking, and dehorning.


The intensification of farming has played an important role in the history of agriculture. It allowed for farmers to feed growing communities around the world. However, intensive agriculture as we know it today is no longer sustainable or necessary.

Why is additional information needed to improve micronutrient recommendations?

Additional information is needed to improve micronutrient recommendations, especially for determining long-term availability, and to evaluate macronutrient fertilizer effects on micronutrient availability. Considerable information about critical deficiency levels of micronutrients is available, but information about critical toxic levels is limited. Information about the interactions of micronutrients with other minerals is also needed.

What percentage of aflatoxins are in the syrup?

Approximately 40% of the aflatoxins are in the syrup (distillers solubles) fraction and 60% are in the solids fraction.

Where does preharvest contamination occur?

Preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxins occurs in the temperate and tropical regions . The seeds in growth-stressed plants are the most susceptible to fungal invasion and aflatoxin production. The most common recognized plant stressors are drought, insect damage and timing of irrigation.

What temperature do peanuts grow?

The growth of aflatoxigenic fungi can occur in stored peanuts when moisture exceeds 8% and ambient temperature is above 25°C. Drought-stressed peanuts have decreased native resistance to infection by aflatoxin producing fungi ( Wotton and Strange, 1987 ).

What is post harvest contamination?

Postharvest contamination occurs worldwide when conditions in the storage unit exist for the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. The primary recognized aflatoxigenic fungi in corn and sorghum are Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Of these fungi A. flavus is the species that has been most studied.

How has modern agriculture increased food supply?

Modern intensive cropping systems have greatly increased the global food supply by utilizing high-yielding genotypes that demand high levels of synthetic inputs (e.g., inorganic fertilizers and other agrochemicals for pest suppression , irrigation, and fossil fuels) (Matson et al., 1997; Evenson and Gollen, 2003 ). However, there have been significant environmental costs in terms of increased pollution, loss of biodiversity in both agroecosystems and in wildlands, and loss of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. Furthermore, economic subsidies paid to modern intensive agriculture have also led to the oversupply, from ecological and economic points of view, of crops and associated agrichemicals ( MEA, 2005 ).

What is sustainable intensive cropping?

A sustainable intensive cropping system requires high grain yield with less water and nutrient input. Since “Green Revolution,” major advances have been made in understanding how plant canopies intercept light and convert its energy to dry matter and yield, leading to better crop management.

What is the nitrates directive?

The Nitrates Directive is incorporated in the Water Framework Directive and is one of the key mechanisms for the protection of waters against agricultural pressures. Within the WFD’s framework, Member States are required to designate “NVZs” of areas of land which drain into polluted waters or waters at risk of pollution and which contribute to nitrate pollution, or Member States may choose to apply measures to the whole territory (instead of designating NVZs). The areas that have been designated NVZs in line with the EU legislation in RCM are shown in Fig. 6, where it is obvious that the largest part of the region has been characterized as vulnerable to nitrates and includes entirely the plain areas of the major rivers.

What are the two soil attributes used in the present analysis?

In order to assess the impact on soil, and the induced benefit from a conversion to precision farming practices, two important soil attributes are being used in the present analysis as sub-criteria layers of the soil criterion hierarchy tree: nitrification and CaCO 3 concentration.

What is nitrification in agriculture?

Nitrification is one of the major environmental issues associated with agricultural activity. Agricultural intensification and pushing toward higher land productivity during much of the past fifty years was usually accompanied with large applications of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers.

How often should cows be watered?

In low water areas, farmers administer water to cows, if not ad libitum, at least three times a day in semi-arid areas and two times a day in arid (Dhami et al., 2018 ).

How does land use change affect soil health?

Land use change, intensive farming systems, and poor land management practices are related to reduced soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil health. One way to address these concerns is by implementing ecological principles to manage agroecosystems for environmental and economic benefits. This chapter examines diverse crop rotations, cover crops, and integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems as examples of sustainable intensification. Long-term diverse crop rotations, cover crops, no-tillage systems, and ICL systems alter SOC dynamics, microbial activity, and impact ecological services such as nutrient cycling and water quality. Research has shown that effects of sustainable intensification on increasing soil carbon content and improving ecological services such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and improved nutrient cycling often require long-term sustained management. Short-term effects have been observed but less frequently. The observed impacts of sustainable intensification are location-dependent, being sensitive to the local climate, soil, and details of management practice implementation.

What is the dispersal of land in tropical countries?

Furthermore, the history, the social and familial rules, and the land policy of tropical countries usually lead to land fragmentation, divided into the hands of many smallholder farmers. Combined with the need to cover family food needs, this dispersal of production is expressed as small plots (sometimes a few hundred square meters), very diverse crops (grains, vegetables, tubers, etc.) within one farm and a large percentage of plots under rotation.

How much water does a cattle eat?

In dry climate or drought seasons in south-central New Mexico, beef cattle on the pasture consume about 57 L/day ? 1 fresh water. Through a single watering, they can provide 94% of their daily water consumption ( Rouda et al., 1994 ). Black Bedouin goats, adapted to the conditions of the arid desert of Sinai, can consume the equivalent water of 45% of their body weight without haemolysis of the red blood cells ( McGregor, 2004 ).

Why is intensive farming better than extensive farming?

Optimal use of these materials and machines produces significantly greater crop yields per unit of land than extensive agriculture, which uses little capital or labour. As a result, a farm using intensive agriculture will require less land than an extensive agriculture farm to produce a similar profit. In practice, however, the increased economies and efficiencies of intensive agriculture often encourage farm operators to work very large tracts in order to keep their capital investments in machinery productively engaged— i.e., busy.

Why do intensive farms require less land?

As a result, a farm using intensive agriculture will require less land than an extensive agriculture farm to produce a similar profit. In practice, however, the increased economies and efficiencies of intensive agriculture often encourage farm operators to work very large tracts in order to keep their capital investments in machinery productively …

Why is intensive agriculture important?

On the level of theory, the increased productivity of intensive agriculture enables the farmer to use a relatively smaller land area that is located close to market, where land values are high relative to labour and capital , and this is true in many parts of the world.

Why is capital important?

Large amounts of labour and capital are necessary to the application of fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides to growing crops, and capital is particularly important to the acquisition and maintenance of high-efficiency machinery for planting, cultivating, and harvesting, as well as irrigation equipment where that is required.

What is extensive agriculture?

extensive agriculture, in agricultural economics, system of crop cultivation using small amounts of labour and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, the terrain, the climate, and the…

What is an encyclopedia editor?

Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.

Do farmers use intensive farming?

However, in practice many relatively small-scale farmers employ some combination of intensive and extensive agriculture, and many of these operate relatively close to markets. Many large-scale farm operators, especially in such relatively vast and agriculturally advanced nations as Canada and the United States, practice intensive agriculture in areas where land values are relatively low, and at great distances from markets, and farm enormous tracts of land with high yields. However, in such societies overproduction (beyond market demands) often results in diminished profit as a result of depressed prices.

What Is Intensive And Extensive Agriculture?

Intensive and extensive agriculture stands in opposition to one another in many ways. Extensive farming refers to systems that use relatively small amounts of inputs, such as human labor, machinery such as tractors, and investment. Fewer inputs are needed to produce yields, since extensive agriculture tends to make use of naturally-occurring resources, such as fertile soil. Pastoral production, where animals are grazed outdoors for their entire lives or are tended to by nomadic farmers – is a type of extensive agriculture, as are operations that favor greater plant and crop diversity.

What Are The Characteristics Of Intensive Farming?

Intensive farming is characterized by higher yields wrested from plants, animals, and the earth, motivated by a desire for more product for less money. Money is the objective, and much of it goes funneling into the hands of a very few. Achieving these unnatural results requires high degrees of human manipulation. Huge amounts of agrochemicals, including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, are applied generously to cropland. Intensive farming also requires high degrees of mechanization, from temperature controls in factory barns, to enormous harvesting tractors – these machines replace what was once done by human labor. Waste lagoons on animal farms and high levels of irrigation in intensive crop cultivation are other characteristics of intensive farming.

Why is biofortification important?

Due to depleted soils caused by intensive agriculture, produce, grains and other crops can wind up with less robust nutrient profiles than their counterparts raised organically or using extensive farming practices. Biofortification – whereby nutrients are added back into food before it is consumed by humans – is seen as a solution by some, however, others view it as being more of a bandaid approach, unsustainable in its own right.

What animals are targeted for intensive operations?

Species such as cows, pigs, chickens, and sheep are the usual targets for intensive operations, where they are bred, born, and forced to live drastically shortened lifespans in crowded, highly constrained, and often filthy environments, with many species kept indoors their entire lives.

How can intensive agriculture be sustainable?

However, one of the most effective and immediate steps that can be taken towards sustainability is for people to curtail the consumption of animal products since these are the most polluting, resource-intensive, and cruelest forms of agriculture. Particularly those in wealthy nations like the United States and New Zealand – two of the highest per-capita consumers of meat – ought to decrease animal product consumption, since consuming animal products can produce negative health outcomes like cardiovascular disease.

What is intensive livestock farming?

The term livestock refers to those individual animals who have no choice but to endure life on farms. Intensive livestock farming takes place within Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, also known as factory farms, and unfortunately, these are places of great tragedy. Species such as cows, pigs, chickens, and sheep are the usual targets for intensive operations, where they are bred, born, and forced to live drastically shortened lifespans in crowded, highly constrained, and often filthy environments, with many species kept indoors their entire lives. Antibiotics are generally administered to animals throughout their lives in order to stave off diseases to which their chronically-suppressed immune systems would otherwise succumb.

How long do pigs live in the wild?

In the wild, pigs can live upwards of 20 years. Intensive agriculture aims to grow animals as fast as possible in as short a time as possible since it is costly to provide feed.

Why is intensive farming important?

This is because intensive farming aims to provide the highest harvest per area of land. Intensive agriculture uses a single crop or livestock species, allowing to increase the output efficiency. The demand for more food at a lower price is …

How do insects survive pesticides?

The insects that survive begin to develop a resistance to the applied pesticide slowly. Then, the next generations start to get born with the same pesticide resistance. To deal with the increase of pests surviving each application, farmers begin to apply more often and higher amounts of pesticides in the future.

What is specialization in agriculture?

Specialized Production. Since the farmers will cultivate the same crop or livestock species, they can now use the same methods across their entire farmland. Specializing in such a specific area allows you to develop in-depth knowledge and direct experience on the livestock or specific crop type.

How does farming affect soil?

Destroys soil nutrients. The use of intensive farming has caused more damage to our soil than almost any other activity. According to the United Nation’s backed study from 2017, one-third of the planet’s soils are degraded due to inconsiderate methods used in the modern agriculture.

What is the primary factor driving the need to create intensive agriculture systems?

The demand for more food at a lower price is the primary factor driving the need to create intensive agriculture systems.

Why do farmers need to apply fertilizer?

Because of the reduced soil quality to maintain high yields, farmers need to apply fertilizers (usually synthetic) to keep up crop productivity.

What are the organisms that make up soil?

Soil organisms, like mites, earthworms, are essential to have a healthy soil structure and composition. In addition, the physical characteristics of the soil and a wide variety of plant types are needed to keep these organisms flourishing.

What Is Intensive Planting?

Intensive planting is a method of growing plants that requires you to ignore what all those plant tags say – and to instead plant your crops very close together.

What is crop rotation?

Crop Rotation. Technically, crop rotation is also a method of intensive planting that can be beneficial for many gardeners. This simply involves planting crops in an order that will help enhance soil fertility and keep diseases and pests at bay.

How long has intensive planting been around?

It might sound like a modern, trendy concept, but in reality, intensive planting has been done for over 4,000 years.

How to prepare soil for planting?

You must prepare the soil before planting by clearing it of weeds and adding plenty of organic matter. A bit of mulch also goes a long way in helping to improve the soil, too.

Why do you plant companion plants side by side?

Many intensive planting methods require you to grow multiple kinds of companion plants side by side. Companion plants don’t just save space, but they can also help attract beneficial insects or repel harmful ones . You can also use this planting method to re-supply nutrients to the soil.

Why is it important to water your garden every time?

One often-overlooked benefit of intensive planting is that it can help dramatically reduce run-off and erosion. When there’s less bare ground to worry about, there’s also less dirt that can escape.

Why do we plant plants near each other?

There are even intensive planting methods that require you to plant several kinds of plants near each other to improve the flavor of one or more crops (though this is a more folk tradition than anything based on solid scientific evidence).

What Is Industrial Agriculture?

The concept of industrial agriculture implies increased use of farmlands to produce the highest yields possible to gain profit and support human food needs. The maximization is achieved through typical intensive farming practices like increased use of fertilizers, insecticides, abundant irrigation, heavy machinery land treatment, planting high-yield species, expansion of new areas, among others. This way, higher inputs in industrial agriculture condition higher outcomes.

How does intensive farming affect the environment?

Intensive farming causes environment pollution and induces major health issues due to poisonous agents. In this regard, the impacts of industrial agriculture require serious attention and management of risks.

What are the advantages of intensive farming?

The main advantage of intensive farming is its increased performance when higher yields are harvested from smaller territories. This brings economic benefits to landowners and provides food for the growing population . Intensive agriculture fully satisfies the market demand even in densely inhabited areas.

What is intensive farming?

Intensive agriculture is the most typical method of soil cultivation and the key source of food worldwide. It relies on reaping high yields with strong and often extreme land exploitation and often extreme inputs. The main benefits of intensive farming include sufficient food supplies at affordable prices.

Why are bees and birds declining in agriculture?

Recent researches report decreased farmland bird and bee populations due to heavy insecticides in industrial agriculture , being a significant threat to further farming business and ecology in general. Hormones mitigating plant diseases are another harmful issue of intensive farming.

How does industrial agriculture affect animals?

Apart from the expansion of new territories when wildlife loses its natural habitation areas, animals are greatly affected by chemical applications in industrial agriculture. While herbicides pollute natural resources, pesticides are rarely selective and kill beneficial species as well, like pollinators and soil-dwelling microorganisms contributing to its fertility. Recent researches report decreased farmland bird and bee populations due to heavy insecticides in industrial agriculture, being a significant threat to further farming business and ecology in general. Hormones mitigating plant diseases are another harmful issue of intensive farming.

What are the disadvantages of industrial agriculture?

Traditional intensive agriculture neither aligns with the sustainability concept nor contributes to nature protection, so intensive farming problems require serious consideration. Deforestation.