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Tag: What is intensive system of farming

what is farming system pdf

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What are the types of farming system?

Mixed farming,Nomadic pastrolism,Shifting cultivationOrganic farmingAgroforestry

What is the importance of a farming system?

Farming is important because it provides food and jobs in a society. Industrial farming provides a large amount of food for a relatively low cost. Family farming improves the local land and reduces the family’s dependency on commercially grown food and grocery stores. Farming and agriculture is essential to the success of society as a whole.

What is farming system?

Farming System. Farming system is a mixture of farm enterprises such as crop, livestock, apiculture, agro-forestry and fruit crops. In this system family allocates its resources. It is to efficiently manage the existing environment for the attainment of the family goal. Farming system represents proper combination of farm enterprises and the …

What is intensive system of farming?

Intensive system of farming is to produce maximum crops from small plots of land by using high technologies and high capital expenditures. For example, production of vegetables in greenhouse or production of fresh milk in large quantities in one farm or fatting ani for thier meat.

How to reduce erosion?

Preventive measures are based on the principles of soil management that reduce the impact of high rainfall erosivity by reducing the raindrop impact and maintaining a high infiltration rate. These measures include mulch farming techniques involving conservation tillage, using cover crops in the rotation cycle, and providing a continuous ground cover through diverse (mixed) cropping systems. Two principal constraints to a widespread adoption of conservation tillage are high cost of herbicides for weed control and lack of appropriate seeding equipment to plant through wet crop-residue mulch. Soil compaction is another impediment to adopting conservation tillage in structurally inert soils of low organic matter content.

What are the challenges of smallholder farming?

Constraints and threats in smallholder farming systems limit the integration of crops and livestock. Poor soil fertility and management, where soils response to fertilizer is limited or risky, results in low crop production and livestock feed. Manure management is often poor: large volumes are lost to open grazing, and the little that is collected is poorly stored, leading to loss of nutrients and increase in greenhouse gas emissions (McIntire et al., 1992; Schlecht et al., 2004 ). In some instances large herds are kept on farms for draft power services during growing periods, insurance, and as assets. Feed gaps during the dry season result in seriously undernourished animals, often because of the high numbers. Rainfall variability regularly depletes the feed resources. Feed shortages force farmers to sell off livestock below market rate to sustain food security during periods of low crop yields. Meanwhile, crops are bred for the sole purpose of food security; the genetic potential for increasing feed digestibility and nutritional value, without undermining crop yield performance, is not utilized ( Blummel et al., 2012 ). With increasing demand and poor availability of alternative biomass, farm resources are increasingly contested and dwindle ( Valbuena et al., 2015 ).

What is yak milk used for?

Yak milk is used for butter but also for traditional cheese, especially in Tibet and Mongolia, where a wide variety of products exist (eg, öröm, eezgii, byaslag, tarag, aarul ). Yak milk can also be consumed as alcohol after fermentation and distillation ( arkhii ).

How do yaks live?

Methods of keeping yak vary from primitive, where animals graze freely in pastures, to the technologically advanced. In summer and autumn, yaks are on pastures in high mountains and the herdsmen live in campsites, which move frequently. In winter and early spring the herds graze at lower elevations close to the permanent villages of the herders and their families (Dong et al., 1999 ). Yak milk is used for butter but also for traditional cheese, especially in Tibet and Mongolia, where a wide variety of products exist (eg, öröm, eezgii, byaslag, tarag, aarul ). Yak milk can also be consumed as alcohol after fermentation and distillation ( arkhii ). In China, where 90% of the yak population lives, a modernized channel is emerging. Hybridization with cow (hybrids called chauri, dzom, or hainag according to the country) is common in order to increase the dairy yield and to rear the animals at lower altitude ( Zhang, 2000 ).

What are the benefits of legumes?

Legumes provide higher nutrient density for food and feed, as well as offer soil fertility benefits.

How does erosion control work?

Erosion control measures are designed to reduce runoff amount and its velocity by using engineering structures that lead to safe disposal of excess runoff. These structures are grouped under two broad categories: structures to reduce runon (e.g., diversion channels and cutoff drains) and structures to dispose of runoff safely (e.g., terraces, waterways, and drop structures). Cultivation of sloping lands (slope gradient > 5%) requires using a combination of erosion preventive and control measures, especially in situations where erosion cannot be effectively controlled by preventive measures alone. In such situations, engineering structures are needed as backup measures. However, design and installation of these structures require engineering skills and proper planning. Further, such structures are costly to install and maintain. It is also important to realize that failure of engineering structures can lead to deep gullies, mass movement, and often irreversible damage to soil and terrain.

How to improve nutrient use efficiency?

Reducing losses of plant nutrients (in runoff, soil erosion, leaching, and volatilization) is crucial to enhancing nutrient-use efficiency. Equally important is recycling of plant nutrients through the use of biosolids as compost, sludge, and manure.

How is farming system related to livelihoods?

Farming systems approach relates to the whole farm rather than individual elements; it is driven as much by the overall welfare of farming households as by goals of yield and profitability. Farming systems are closely linked to livelihoods because agriculture remains the single most important component of most rural people’s living and also plays an important role in the lives of many people in semi-urban areas.

What is the farming system?

Farming system is an integrated set of activities that farmers perform in their farms under their resources and circumstances to maximize the productivity and net farm income on a sustainable basis. The farming system takes into account the components of soil, water, crops, livestock, labour, capital, energy and other resources, with the farm family at the centre managing agriculture and related activities.

Why is vertical expansion important in agriculture?

The farming system approach, therefore, assumes great importance for sound management of farm resources to enhance farm productivity, reduce the degradation of environmental quality and improve the quality of life of farmers and above all to maintain sustainability in farm production and productivity.

What is the food system of Sri Lanka?

It occupies the largest area within the sub-continent and, with the exception of a small area in Northern Sri Lanka, is confined entirely to India. Rice and some wheat are grown, as well as pearl millet and sorghum, a wide variety of pulses and oilseeds, sugarcane, and vegetables and fruit.

What is the farming system?

Farming system is a complex inter-related matrix of soil, plants, animals, implements, power, labour, capital and other inputs controlled in part by families and influenced to varying degrees by political, economic institutional and social forces that operate at many levels.

What is the emphasis of farming system?

The emphasis is more on a system rather than gross output. In other words ‘farming system’ is a resource management strategy to achieve economic and sustained production to meet diverse requirement of farm household while preserving resource base and maintaining a high level environment quality.

How many districts contribute to the food basket?

The benefits of modern technology have, however, been restricted to favorable farming situations. Only 44 out of 453 districts are contributing half of the total food grain basket of the country. This clearly suggests that the technology supposed to be scale and resource neutral has been confined to the districts with favorable farming conditions.

What is the southern part of Asia?

South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities, also includes the adjoining countries on the west and the east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as the Indian subcontinent south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

In addition to creating regional disparity in agricultural growth, green revolution resulted in overexploitation and degradation of land and water resources, deforestation, near extinction of valuable flora and fauna, advent of newer pests and diseases, and ecological problems. All these have resulted in decline in production and productivity even in the green revolution areas.

What is the dominant pattern of farm activities and household livelihoods?

Dominant pattern of farm activities and household livelihoods, including field crops, livestock, trees, aquaculture, hunting and gathering, processing and off-farm activities; and taking into account the main technologies used, which determine the intensity of production and integration of crops, livestock and other activities.

What is post harvest handling?

Usually, post-harvest product handling along agricultural value chains is characterized by goal-oriented practices, focused on management of product flow, and innovations in handling the product to meet consumer demands. This paper focuses on the value chain actor at any stage of the chain as the central actor, whose routine practices greatly influence establishment, shaping, and maintenance of the post-harvest handling system. A soft systems approach, employing second order cybernetics was used to better understand pineapple postharvest handling in South Western Uganda, in the frame of facilitating the chain to accrue more satisfactory benefits to the participating chain actors. Pineapple post-harvest handling in SW Uganda was found to be arranged along multiple interrelated activity layers, characterized by decision making, goal setting, handling practices, reflexive observation of handling practices outcomes, rule setting for more purposeful product handling and learning. Handling practices were rooted in the chain actor’s interest, aims, role in the chain and were shaped by the operational context in which the value chain is being operated. If any of these changed, the handling practice, its results and benefits also changed.

How do FHSs handle climate?

Farm household systems (FHSs) in the Andes handle climate-related hazards such as frost and droughts with risk-coping and risk-management strategies based on the adaptive capital available to them. Nevertheless, a higher frequency of climatic stressors observed during the last few decades is challenging their capacity to adapt at a pace fast enough to keep up with the changes in external conditions. This increases the demand on the scientific community from policy and decision makers to investigate climate impacts and propose viable adaptation pathways at the local and regional scales. Better understanding heterogeneity in climate vulnerability is an important step towards addressing this demand. We present here a mixed-method approach to assessing archetypes or patterns of climate vulnerability that combines qualitative tools from participatory rural assessment approaches and quantitative techniques including cluster analysis. We illustrate this by looking at a case study of the Central Andes of Peru. The operationalization of the methods revealed differential factors for climate vulnerability, allowing us to categorize FHS archetypes according to the differences in those underlying factors. The archetypes differed mainly according to farm area, agro-ecological zones, irrigation, off-farm employment and climate-related damages. The results suggest that the approach is useful for explaining vulnerability as a function of recurrent internal and external determinants of vulnerability and developing related adaptive strategies.

What are perennial grains?

Perennial grain crops are gaining increased attention from researchers as one possible solution to agriculture’s many sustainability challenges. In the Sub-Saharan African context, perennial varieties of crops such as sorghum, rice, and pigeon pea have potential to provide numerous benefits for smallholder farmers. The introduction and adoption of new crops and practices is however a complex process that needs to be approached from an interdisciplinary and participatory perspective. We here review the small but growing body of knowledge about on-farm adoption and the use of perennial grains around the world, as well as the more extensive literature of farming systems research. We conclude that a farming systems approach offers a fruitful entry point for informing the emerging research agenda around perennial grains in African smallholder agriculture. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the potentials and challenges of perennial grains also requires cross-scalar analysis capable of looking beyond the farming system. We thus outline five key considerations for developing and studying new perennial grains in smallholder contexts, i.e., (1) smallholder farming systems are complex, diverse, and locally adapted; (2) decision-making is shaped by various resource constraints; (3) farming is often “semi-subsistence” and forms part of broader livelihood strategies, wherein risk is an important factor; (4) gender relations and roles influence many aspects of smallholder farming systems; and (5) analyses of farmers’ production systems, decision-making, and livelihood strategies must be embedded within a broader political-economic context. Based on these considerations, we suggest directions and examples of key questions for future research and derive methodological implications for how such research could be approached.