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Tag: What is the easiest fish to farm

how to do fish farming pdf

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How to start fish farm?

What are some insider tips for jump starting a fish farm?Choose species of fish which are popular and hearty to start out. …Gain recognition for being consistent and of high quality in your product. …Stay aware of market trends and be flexible. The customer will always determine your successes. …Stay aware of new industry innovations and trends. …

How to become a fish farmer?

aquatic plant control – includes pesticidesdams – including construction maintenancediversion of waterfish stockinghigh capacity wellsnatural water bodyimportation of fish – non-native speciesponds – including construction and dredgingprivate fishing preservewaste discharge – WPDES permitMore items…

What are the disadvantages of fish farming?

What are the disadvantages of fish farming?Disease. Keeping fish in close proximity increases the chances of disease.Environment. Fish farms can have a harmful effect on the local environment.Protein Efficiency.Set-up Costs.Worker Safety.

What is the easiest fish to farm?

What are the Best Fish for Aquaponics?Tilapia. Tilapia is a great and tasty edible fish that adapts easily to most environments. …Murray Cod. The Murray Cod is a great choice if you are planning on high stocking densities in one fish tank. …Catfish. Catfish are great for the aquaponics system. …Goldfish. …Koi or Carp. …Prawn and Shrimps. …Trout. …Crappie. …Guppy. …Tetra Fish. …More items…

Do tilapia fingerlings pay off?

Spending a bit more money on buying good-quality, male tilapia fingerlings of good size from your trusted fingerling producer will pay off at harvest!

What is the F:+254 20 273 2086?

F:+254 20 273 2086 Fish farming has the potential to make a significant contribution to nutrition, income generation and employment in Kenya. This booklet contains useful tips to help fish farmers build thriving aquaculture businesses.

How long does it take for fish to harvest?

Fish should be ready to harvest within six to nine months. Stop feeding the fish two days before harvest. Prepare the tools (seine net, plastic buckets, weighing scale) and labour for harvesting. Harvesting is done early in the morning. During harvesting, handle fish with care to avoid damage and post-harvest losses; always wet your hands/equipment and keep the fish as long as possible in the water. Partially drain the pond very early on the day of harvest.

What is Farm Africa?

Farm Africa works directly with farmers, suppliers and traders to improve the production and marketing of fish. We do this by:

How does Farm Africa help the poor?

Farm Africa reduces poverty by unleashing African farmers’ abilities to grow their incomes in an environmentally sustainable way.

What is the rule of thumb for feeding fish?

Feeding fish is throwing money in the pond; make sure it is money well spent. As a rule of thumb, never feed pellets that are bigger than the eye of your fish. Intensive fish farming Up to 150kg/ m2

Can tilapia be raised in a pond?

Tilapia can be reared in earthen ponds, ponds with liners, cages and raised tanks. Maximum stocking density:

What are the two most common fish species?

Common species for fish farming. The two most common species for fish farming is Tilapia and Catfish. Tilapia live in fresh water, and they grow very rapidly. Tilapia are easy to keep since they are very easy to maintain. These types of fish are a wonderful investment.

What is fish farming?

The process of fish farming can be described as nurturing these water dwellers to live in a controlled environment. Fish are fascinating creatures, and once you learn the basics of fish farming, also known as “pisciculture,” you’ll learn how amazing the whole process can be. The process might seem daunting at first but rest assured …

Why are fish tanks important?

Fish tanks or ponds – These are necessary to hold a large amount of fish for both harvesting and marketing. Tanks and ponds provide an excellent environment for the fish.

Why is fish farming so difficult?

Fish farming might become difficult if there is too much competition from fish obtained from lakes, oceans, and rivers . Also, there is no by-product of fish farming, and sometimes, extras such as fish food might increase costs.

Why spacing between ponds?

The spacing between ponds makes sure that the fish can be easily harvested and fed.

What are the two most commonly used fish species for farming?

Later, we will discuss in detail the facts about two of the most commonly used species for fish farming, which are Catfish and Tilapia.

What are the factors that determine the water level of a pond?

The factors include inflow and outflow, proper management, proper drainage, shape and size, and spacing between ponds. Inflow and outflow mean you must continually measure the water level to ensure a healthy environment for the fish.

How often is fish processing done?

The processing facility is primarily used to process other food products intended for farm gate sales every 6 months (on average there are 24 days of processing annually). Fish processing (i.e., bleeding, heading, gutting, filleting, etc) will only occur when the facility is not being used to process other food products and there is limited risk of cross contamination. Prior to fish processing the working area/relevant area within the facility will be cleaned and sterilized in addition to previous post processing of other food products cleaning operations.

What is an air compressor?

An air compressor is a key component of many oxygen generation systems. They are generally the first major component in line prior to the oxygen generator. If the air compressor is having problems and is releasing oil into the line it has the potential to do serious damage to the oxygen generator which has very sensitive components. As such it is recommended that an air compressor serving an oxygen generator always be serviced by a knowledgeable technician without deviation from the maintenance/service schedule defined by the manufacturer.

How does a M-CMAF filter work?

The drum filter at the M-CMAF was used to remove suspended solids smaller than 60 µm just prior to biofiltration. Two fibre glass wing walls diverted all system flow into the drum filter. As the screen on the inside of the drum filter clogged with solids the water level in the drum filter would rise. Once the rising water level was high enough to trigger a float switch within the drum filter it would then be prompted to rotate via a PLC which would also activate a backwash pump which sprayed the outside of the filter with high pressure nozzles that ran the length of the drum. Within the drum directly under the spray nozzles was a trough which was designed to collect the effluent from the nozzles. The trough was plumbed directly to the solids sump.

What is a backup generator?

The backup generator is essential for maintaining the operation of all equipment on the farm in the event of a power outage. Ensure that the backup generator is sized to support all pieces of equipment on the farm and is equipped with an automatic transfer switch such that in the event of a power outage the generator it will function properly. Backup diesel generators need to be routinely started to maintain the integrity of solenoid starter. Fuel conditioner should be added to the fuel tank if the tank is located outside of the building to prevent the diesel from coagulating/gelling in the tank at extremely low temperatures. Ensure that the exhaust from the generator is directed outside of the building and if possible ensure that the radiator is also set up to vent externally for prolonged generator operation. This may necessitate the installation of additional louvers vents in the building to facilitate air flow to the generator.

How does a M-CMAF CO2 stripper work?

The operation of the M-CMAF CO2 stripper was directly tied to the monitoring system. An increase in CO2 levels (i.e., because of feeding activity or stress) detected by the monitoring system beyond a specific set point would prompt a PLC (programmable logic control) to initiate a pair of CO2 stripping pumps to turn on thereby pumping water up and into the CO2 stripper. As water is pumped onto the top of the stripper (primarily constructed of fibre glass) it trickled down through a perfoated plate and into the stripper cell which by design passively separated water and CO2. The M-CMAF strippers released the CO2 directly into the ambient air but there were tentative plans to force vent the strippers in the future to maximize CO2 removal out of the building when desired.

What maintenance regimes should be adhered to?

Maintenance regimes defined by the manufacturer should always be adhered to and routinely reviewed. Warranties and support services may or may not be available if maintenance schedules are not kept in line with manufacturer recommendations.

How does M-CMAF work?

The M-CMAF Water Quality Monitoring Program relied upon the collection of data through three main ‘avenues’: ‘In-house’ sampling via various portable/hand held instruments, submission of samples to a certified lab (ALS Laboratory Group) and collection of In Situ data via the automated monitoring system. Each of these sampling avenues required a different set of considerations for sampling and data collection. The following is intended for use by fish farmers to develop their own water quality monitoring programs so that they can directly compare their results against industry thresholds.

What are the benefits of eating fish?

Health Benefits of Fish 1 Fish is high in many important nutrients. It is rich in high-quality protein, iodine, and various vitamins and minerals. 2 Some fish also pack omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. 3 Consuming fish regularly is safe for heart patients. 4 Omega-3 fatty acids is essential for brain and eye development. And some fish is great source of omega-3 fatty acids. 5 Regular consumption of fish is very important for controlling memory and emotion. People who eat fish on a regular basis have more grey matter in their brain centers that control memory and emotion. 6 Omega-3 fatty acids in fish may also combat depression. 7 Consuming regularly is also beneficial for reducing the risk of type 1 diabetes and several other autoimmune conditions. 8 Some studies show that children who eat more fish have a lower risk of asthma. 9 People who eat more fish have a much lower risk of AMD, a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness. 10 Currently, sleep disorders have become incredibly common throughout the world. Some evidence indicates that eating fatty fish (such as salmon) may improve sleep. [ 1] 11 Fish is no doubt delicious and very easy to prepare. You can prepare fish in a number of ways, including baked and fried.

What are the advantages of commercial fish farming?

According to the demand, commercial fish farming business allows for large supplies of fish. Catching fish from the wild can’t always fulfill the consumer’s demand.

How to keep fish healthy?

Monitor the health of your fish on a regular basis. Do all your necessary farm tasks timely. Keep the pond environment clean and suitable for proper growth.

Why is commercial fish farming important?

Thus commercial fish farming helps to preserve natural ecosystems. Compared to the wild brethren, some farm raised fish species are more nutritious. Fish are usually fed a wide variety of protein and nutrient enriched foods or pellets on commercial fish farms. So farm fish become more healthier than the wild fish.

Why is fish important for brain development?

Regular consumption of fish is very important for controlling memory and emotion. People who eat fish on a regular basis have more grey matter in their brain centers that control memory and emotion.

What is fish rich in?

Fish is high in many important nutrients. It is rich in high-quality protein, iodine, and various vitamins and minerals.

How many people in the world are fish farmers?

More than 1 billion people around the world depend on fish as their primary protein source. And most of this people are directly or indirectly involved with fish products or fish farming business. As a result, fish farming creates a great income and employment source for the people.

What is the most important fish species used in fish fa rming?

Wo r ldwid e, the most important fish species used in fish fa rming are ca rps, salmon, tilapia and cat fish . The year 475 BC is consid ered of very great significanc e in the. annals of the history of aquacultur e as the period when Fan Li wrote the book, "The Classic of.

What are the soil groups in India?

soil groups (for fish far ming) available in India are black, red, lateritic and a lluvial soils. T he

What is the best site for an artificial fish farm?

A proper survey is required for the site selectio n. The ideal site for artificial fish farm is the land

How to obtain sloping areas and the capacity?

sloping areas and the capacity is obtained both by excavating and by buildi ng a wall.

How did fish farms develop?

structures. The typical fish farm was develope d by forming small ponds by hand, or an eve n

What are ponds used for?

Ponds are now serving a variety of purposes, including water for livestock and for irrigation, fish production, crop production, fire protection, energy conservation, wildlife habitat, recreation, erosion control, and landscape improvement.

Where does water come from in a pond?

The water supply may be from a stream or a canal or from an underground source such as wells, tube wells, lakes etc. The water retention ability of the ponds depends on soil composition of the pond bottom and subsoil water level. The natural biological productivity of such ponds depends on soil and water qualities.

1. INTRODUCTION

What is fish farming?
Why do we raise fish?
What do you need to raise fish?
How do we begin?

3. CONSTRUCTING FISH PONDS

How large should your pond be?
How to build a 20 by 20 metre pond
Building bigger ponds

5. OUTLETS TO LET WATER OUT OF THE POND

Simple outlets
A better outlet
Another kind of outlet: the monk
Improving your pipe outlet
Using a siphon to drain your pond

6. BRINGING WATER TO YOUR PONDS

Raising the level of your water supply
Digging a supply ditch
Digging a return ditch
Building a sluice to control the water flow

8. PREPARING YOUR POND

Before filling the pond
Fertilizing the water
How to make plant compost
How to make animal compost
Building a crib
Putting fertilizer into the crib
When is your pond ready?

9. STOCKING YOUR POND WITH BABY FISH

Growing your own baby fish
Feeding the fish in your nursery pond
Using your baby fish
Transporting your baby fish
Putting baby fish into your pond

12. HARVESTING YOUR POND

Harvesting without draining the water
Harvesting by draining part of the water
Harvesting by draining all of the water
Harvesting fish when you have a monk

What is the most important liming material?

The most important liming materials that can be used are agricultural lime, slaked lime and quicklime. Agricultural lime is often applied by fish farmers because it is safe, very effective and often less expensive.

How long does it take to harvest fish?

When most of the fish are big enough to be eaten or sold, harvesting can start (usually after 5 to 6 months).

What is the family of carp?

Carp belong to the freshwater family Cyprinidae. The family consists of 1600 different species of which only very few are important for fish farming. Farmed carp are divided into three groups: common carp, farmed in Europe, Asia and the Far East; Indian carps; and Chinese carps.

How does oxygen work in ponds?

Oxygen is a gas that is produced by all plants in the pond (therefore also by phytoplankton) with the help of sunlight. The more sunlight falls on the pond and the larger the quantity of phytoplankton, the higher the oxygen-production will be. The oxygen produced partly dissolves in the water and the rest escapes to the air. The oxygen level of the water varies during a 24-hour period because the production and absorption of oxygen by the plants change with light and dark-ness. The phytoplankton in the pond only produce oxygen when there is light. At night they need oxygen like any other plant or animal in the pond, but because of the lack of sunlight no oxygen can be pro-duced. Consequently, the quantity of dissolved oxygen in the water decreases after sunset (figure 22). Normally, the oxygen level is at the highest at the end of the afternoon (oxygen has been produced throughout the day) and at the lowest in the early morning (oxygen has been used up throughout the night). Shortage of oxygen is the most important cause of fish death when the pond has been fertilised with manure or fed too much. A sufficiently high oxygen level is im-portant for good fish production.

What fish species can withstand a wide range of salinity?

Some fish species can withstand a wider salinity range than others: e.g. tilapia and catfish can withstand a wide range from freshwater to seawater, while carp can only with-stand freshwater.

How big should a pond be?

Square and rectangular shaped ponds are easiest to build, but your pond can have a different shape to fit the size and shape of the land. An area of 300 m² is a good size for a family pond, which you can build without the use of machinery. Ponds can be much larger than this, but for family use it is better to have several small ponds rather than one large one. Also, if you have more than one pond you will be able to harvest fish more often.

What temperature is good for fish farming?

Water temperature is an important condition in assessing whether the fish species selected can be raised. A water temperature between 20 °C and 30 °C is generally good for fish farming.

How to test fertility of water?

There are three ways to test the fertility of the water and these are: ? If the fingertips become out of sight before your arm reaches the depth of the elbow, it means the water is over-fertilised. You should stop applying fertiliser to the water.

How big should a fish pond be?

The pond size depends on the kind or level of fish farming you want to go into; if it’s on a commercial basis, bigger ponds of 50 by 50 metres are better for a bigger harvest, but they also need intensive management. It is always good to start with a pond big enough to harvest good catches but at the same time easy to manage. For example, if you build a pond 20 by 25 metres, the pond will measure about 500 square metres (20m × 25m = 500m2).

What is fish farming?

Fish farming is the growing or rearing of fish in ponds, tanks and dams under good management systems with the aim of maximizing yields or harvest in the shortest possible time of about 5 to 6 months per cycle. Commercial fish farming is an ongoing income generating project. Besides commercial purposes, fish farming is used as alternative to capture fishing to conserve fish in natural water bodies like rivers, dams and lakes. People who depend on fishing for livelihood are encouraged to venture into fish farming to sustain fishing-based livelihoods.

Why is fish farming important?

With most capture fisheries considered fully exploited, fish farming is central to conserving the remaining fish stocks and provision of an alternative source of livelihood and food security.Fish farming is a vital response to the fish depletion problem for the following reasons:

How does fishing help Zambia?

In Zambia, fishing is one of the main sources of livelihood for rural households especially those that live near water bodies like rivers, dams and lakes. It is the third largest employer of the rural population after crop and livestock agriculture. It contributes significantly to income and food security. Available records on the fisheries industry indicate that there are more than 25,000 artisanal fishermen and women engaged in capture fishing in the country.

What are the causes of the dwindling of fish stocks?

Unsustainable fishing practices such as wrong or illegal fishing gear, explosives such as dynamite and poison have caused fish stocks to dwindle to the point that catches have also drastically reduced. If not adequately addressed, this situation has potential to negatively impact on the economy and people who depend on fish as a source of livelihood and food security.

Why are fish stocks dwindling in Zambia?

Over the years, Zambia has experienced dwindling fish stocks in the natural water bodies due to unsustainable fishing methods that do not give fish space to replenish itself . Annual capture fisheries output per person has declined from 11.4 kg in the 1970s to 8 kg in the 1990s, and to 6.4 kg in 2003. This translates into reduced revenue for the population that heavily depends on fishing and fish trading for their livelihood.

What is the most important liming material?

The most important liming materials that can be used are agricultural lime, slaked lime and quicklime. Agricultural lime is often applied by fish farmers because it is safe, very effective and often less expensive.

How long does it take to harvest fish?

When most of the fish are big enough to be eaten or sold, harvesting can start (usually after 5 to 6 months).

What is the family of carp?

Carp belong to the freshwater family Cyprinidae. The family consists of 1600 different species of which only very few are important for fish farming. Farmed carp are divided into three groups: common carp, farmed in Europe, Asia and the Far East; Indian carps; and Chinese carps.

How does oxygen work in ponds?

Oxygen is a gas that is produced by all plants in the pond (therefore also by phytoplankton) with the help of sunlight. The more sunlight falls on the pond and the larger the quantity of phytoplankton, the higher the oxygen-production will be. The oxygen produced partly dissolves in the water and the rest escapes to the air. The oxygen level of the water varies during a 24-hour period because the production and absorption of oxygen by the plants change with light and dark-ness. The phytoplankton in the pond only produce oxygen when there is light. At night they need oxygen like any other plant or animal in the pond, but because of the lack of sunlight no oxygen can be pro-duced. Consequently, the quantity of dissolved oxygen in the water decreases after sunset (figure 22). Normally, the oxygen level is at the highest at the end of the afternoon (oxygen has been produced throughout the day) and at the lowest in the early morning (oxygen has been used up throughout the night). Shortage of oxygen is the most important cause of fish death when the pond has been fertilised with manure or fed too much. A sufficiently high oxygen level is im-portant for good fish production.

What fish species can withstand a wide range of salinity?

Some fish species can withstand a wider salinity range than others: e.g. tilapia and catfish can withstand a wide range from freshwater to seawater, while carp can only with-stand freshwater.

How big should a pond be?

Square and rectangular shaped ponds are easiest to build, but your pond can have a different shape to fit the size and shape of the land. An area of 300 m² is a good size for a family pond, which you can build without the use of machinery. Ponds can be much larger than this, but for family use it is better to have several small ponds rather than one large one. Also, if you have more than one pond you will be able to harvest fish more often.

What temperature is good for fish farming?

Water temperature is an important condition in assessing whether the fish species selected can be raised. A water temperature between 20 °C and 30 °C is generally good for fish farming.